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When a few (around three to six) monosaccharides are joined, it is called an oligosaccharide (oligo- meaning "few").These molecules tend to be used as markers and signals, as well as having some other uses.These techniques allowed for the discovery and detailed analysis of many molecules and metabolic pathways of the cell, such as glycolysis and the Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle).Another significant historic event in biochemistry is the discovery of the gene and its role in the transfer of information in the cell.Many monosaccharides joined together make a polysaccharide.They can be joined together in one long linear chain, or they may be branched.
By finding how similar two protein sequences are, we acquire knowledge about their structure and therefore their function.
The reverse reaction can also occur, using a molecule of water to split up a disaccharide and break the glycosidic bond; this is termed hydrolysis.
The most well-known disaccharide is sucrose, ordinary sugar (in scientific contexts, called table sugar or cane sugar to differentiate it from other sugars).
When two monosaccharides undergo dehydration synthesis whereby a molecule of water is released, as two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom are lost from the two monosaccharides.
The new molecule, consisting of two monosaccharides, is called a disaccharide and is conjoined together by a glycosidic or ether bond.
In 1988, Colin Pitchfork was the first person convicted of murder with DNA evidence, which led to the growth of forensic science. Sugars are carbohydrates, but not all carbohydrates are sugars.