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Borysewicz and a colleague, Ed Burke, set up a clinic in a Los Angeles motel room and four of the seven athletes who had transfusions won medals. They were identified in the subsequent inquiry as having had transfusions. The emergence of EPO - In the late 1980s a recombinant drug created for people suffering from kidney failure became a substance abused by athletes seeking enhanced stamina and performance.
The drug is recombinant erythropoietin, known as EPO, which was developed by the Amgen company.
The Wiel's-Groene Leeuw affair – At the stage from Luchon to Carcassonne of the 1962 Tour de France, twelve riders fell ill and said 'bad fish' was the cause.
Tour doctor Pierre Dumas realized they had all been given the same drug by the same soigneur.
This was included in the 1997 International Olympic Committee study on the Historical Evolution of Doping Phenomenon, and listed as the presumed first death due to doping during a competition.
The report did allow that in this period it was common practice, and not illegal.
However, the main Bordeaux–Paris race did not start until 1891, and the cyclist who supposedly died in 1886, Arthur Linton, actually finished second in 1896 and died a few weeks later, reportedly from a combination of drug-induced exhaustion and typhoid fever.
Riders suffered hallucinations from the exhaustion and perhaps the drugs.
"Doping means to make use of physiological substances in immoderate quantity or abnormal method from healthy people whose only aim is to obtain an artificial increase of the performance during the competition".France passed its first anti-doping law in November 1964.Performance-enhancing drugs became illegal on 1 June 1965.Thus the list contains doping incidents, those who have tested positive for illegal performance-enhancing drugs, prohibited recreational drugs or have been suspended by a sports governing body for failure to submit to mandatory drug testing.
It also contains and clarifies cases where subsequent evidence and explanation has shown the parties to be innocent of illegal practice.The increased thickness of the blood (above 70% red blood cells) increases the risk of blood clotting which can block blood vessels causing a heart attack or stroke, especially in the middle of the night when the heart's rate is lowest.